Parliementary Democracy – There are so many systems of government in the world. These systems of governance are usually adapted to the power of the majority and the culture that exists within a region, place or country.
People try to make their own rules according to what they want. With this rule they will produce some new laws for mutual benefit. On this occasion we will discuss about parliamentary democracy which is widely applied in some countries in the world. The discussion we will describe as below.
Actually there are many different democratic systems. Although they all use the democracy system in their decision-making. It depends on what kind of democracy they apply in a country. because this will greatly affect the outcome of a decision making decision. We will describe how Parliamentary Democracy work in the system of the government.
Parliamentary Government Definition
The Definition of a Parliamentary Government System is a system of government in which the parliament has the authority to appoint the prime minister and may overthrow the government. The trick is by issuing a kind of no-confidence motion.
In the parliamentary system there is a president and a prime minister, who has authority over the course of government. In the parliamentary system of government, the president is only a symbol of the head of state. While the prime minister became head of government.
A parliamentary system of government distinguished by the executive branch of the government depending on the support of the legislative or parliamentary branch either directly or indirectly, which is often expressed in a veto of belief. So it can be concluded that there is no clear separation between the executive and the legislature.
Definition of Democracy
Democracy is a form of government in which all citizens have equal rights in decision-making that can change their lives. If you using democracy. This way will allows citizens to participate-either directly or through representation-in the formulation, development and law-making.
Parliamentary Democracy Definition
Parliamentary democracy is a democracy that shows a close relationship between the executive body (government) and the legislative body (the representative body of the people). Ministers who exercise executive power are appointed at the most by vote in the legislative session, and are accountable to the legislature (parliament).
This system is called the parliamentary cabinet system. In this democracy the president or king is domiciled as the head of state. Not the head of government, so it can not be held accountable for the course of government.
The government (executive body) carries out a task or program approved by the people’s representative body (legislative body). As long as the government performs its duties according to parliamentary agreement. Then the government’s position becomes stable and gets parliamentary support. However, if deviant parliament can bring down the cabinet, this means that the ministers must resign.
experts have a broad view of parliamentary democracy. There are several opinions about parliamentary democracy that can be used as a reference so we know how to work. Here is an explanation from experts on parliamentary democracy
Parliamentary Democracy by Raymond Williams
Raymond Williams says in Book A short Counter revolution. That the notion of parliamentary democracy is a system whereby governance in society is determined. The determined by representatives established. By means of secret elections by every adult citizen, determined and conducted regularly, openly and equitably ( fair) for every adult citizen in society.
Explication of Kaare Strom
Kaare Strom provides if parliamentary democracy in its ideal form as a chain or chain of delegation and accountability. From voters to policymakers, in which each chain only connects with one representative, or several noncompeting individuals, and each representative is responsible over one and only one principle that is to the people who elect them.
Explanation of Britannica.com about Parliamentary Democracy
The definition of parliamentary democracy is explained in britannica.com that a form of democracy in a government system in which a party or coalition of party parties with the greatest representation in the legislative territory of government.
The leader of parliament in the parliamentary democratic government system is prime minister or chancellor. The executive in government is appointed by the MPs by the prime minister in the cabinet. The minor party acts as an opposition to the majority and has a duty to challenge.
The prime minister may be deployed if he loses the trust of the ruling party or from the council council residing in parliament. Parliamentary democracy has historically been born in Britain and adopted in various forms in other countries and former British colonies.
“So in some sense above, the definition of parliamentary democracy, there is a prime minister as a power holder controlled by members of parliament, especially the majority party representatives”.
The Controversion of Parliamentary Democracy by CM.N. Roy
CM.N Roy accepted the often-used democratic notion of government by the people, of the people and of the people. According to Roy, everyone talks about democracy, but we can not find the government of the people and by the people everywhere.
There is a discrepancy between the idea or theory of democracy and how the face of democracy is today. With regard to parliamentary democracy, Roy argues that parliamentary democracy is not a democracy at all.
According to him if democracy is correct according to his understanding, then the current democracy is only a government for the people not by the people or from the people. This is clear, because the people do not rule, the government does. Therefore, parliamentary democracy is not a system of democratic governance.
Roy say if he blames Rousseau on the theory of parliamentary democracy. This is clearly according to him directed to the dictatorial government.
The Biggest Mistake in The Goverment System
Even, Roy opine the parliamentary democracy is the biggest mistake in a country’s governance system. This leads to a concentration of power or the centralization of power. He added that parliamentary democracy is the “Boss of Centralization”.
According to Roy, with the centralization of power, there will be dehumanization. According to him, with parliamentary democracy, after the people elect or vote, the votes or rights they have in democracy have disappeared because they are represented by their choice in parliament.
This is not in accordance with democracy because in its application, parliamentary democracy only represents its own party not the people who choose it. Therefore, Roy argues, that democracy is not a government by the people but “government by the party”.
Roy even added in his book Encylopaedia of Eminent Thinkers that the use of delegation in democracy especially parliamentary democracy is negation or “no” for democracy itself. According to him, shortly after the people handed over their voices to their representatives then democracy was killed at the time.
By giving a vote or the right of determination to a representative. Then all persons appointing such representatives have been entitled to democracy and the delegate has a very large right because it represents many individuals, whereas the person they represent is no more than a true listener, a cattle that can only be regulated not regulate this country. Not democracy at all.
Roy criticized the party system for supporting his response to parliamentary democracy. According to him, the party system was built to capture the existing power. By becoming a party, they will gather the power and power of the people who elect them. It’s easier than having to work on your own.
The existence of a political party system is a rejection of democracy. This matter clearly leads to the response that society is incapable of doing anything by itself alone; This is a denial of the potential of human intelligence and creativity.
Characteristics of Parliamentary Governance System
In distinguishing the existing governmental system in a country, we need to know the characteristics of the state, as well as the characteristics of the parliamentary system of government. Characteristics The system of parliamentary government is as follows:
- President as head of state and Prime Minister as head of government
- The power of the executive has and is accountable to parliamentary power
- In the executive power by the president appointed by the legislature / parliament. While the king is selected according to the Law.
- The legislature has the power to overthrow the executive power
- The Cabinet / Ministers are accountable to the legislative power
- The prime minister has the perogrative right (privilege) in appointing and dismissing the good ministers that lead a department and a non department.
Advantages of Parliamentary Governance System
- In making policy / decision in handled quickly because of the ease of adjustment of opinion between the executive and legislative. This is because there is a party or coalition of parties.
- Decision making uses fast time
- In accountability for the creation and implementation of public policy is clear
- Having strong oversight of parliament against cabinet / ministers so that the cabinet becomes more careful in running the government
Deficiency of Parliamentary Governance System
- The position of the executive or cabinet depends on the majority of parliamentary support so that at any time it may be imposed by parliament.
- In the term of office of the executive or cabinet can not be determined to end in accordance with his term of office because at any time may be dissolved by the legislative.
- Parliament became a place in the regeneration of executive positions. According to the experience of the members of parliament who became stock in the minister or other executive positions.
- Cabinet / ministers can control the legislature, if some members of the cabinet come from the majority party in parliament, because of their large influence diparlemen and party, cabinet members can control parliament.
Then, how the system of government built in parliamentary democracy? It is clear that the people, the voters only choose the legislature only, then the councils in parliament or legislators will elect the prime minister and then, the prime minister determines the members of the cabinet and subsequently accounted for parliament and then acts as executive.
In some countries, however, parliamentary democracies still have presidents, prime ministers and systems of power that are no longer parliamentary democracies. In parliamentary democracies that have states. It generally occurs in the monarchy government system or does not have a senate or representation of each state that has been determined in number by the constitution built by parliament.
Formerly, the existing parliament elected representatives of each state then, replaced by direct elections for each country section to determine. Which senate they would sit in the central state to regulate the course of power by the rules of the rules.
In terms of power, when the senate is formed, then the greatest power lies with the senate or senator, no longer the house of representative or the generally representative council. However, they are required to keep working together to become legislature in government.
Until now, countries that claim to embrace parliamentary democracy have a lot of election and power chain is really complicated.
Countries Parliamentary Democracy
Among the countries that adopt parliamentary democracy are:
- The African Nations that continent there are Mauritius, South Africa, Botswana, Libya, Tunisia Ethiopia.
- In the Americas there are Jamaica, Bahamas, Antiqua and Barbuda, Belize, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada, Dominica, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Suriname.
- Later in Asia there are Thailand, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Pakistan, India, Iraq, Bhutan, Kuwait, kyrgyszatan, Lebanon, Japan, Mongolia, Nepal,Singapore.
- On the Continent of Europe there are Albania, Belgium, Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Ireland, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,, Italy, Kosovo, Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, , Moldova, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, United Kingdom.Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey.
- In the Pacific and Oceania there are New Papua Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, Samoa, and Vanuatu.
Thus information on the Definition and Characteristics of Parliamentary Democracy. Hopefully friends can receive and benefit both the meaning of parliamentary government system, the characteristics of the parliamentary government system. And the advantages and disadvantages of parliamentary government system.